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Wednesday, July 6, 2022

5G TERMS AND ACRONYMS

2G

Second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, designed as a replacement for analog first-generation radio (1G). Designed primarily for voice using digital standards.

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5G

Fifth-generation of mobile telecommunications technology, required by International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2020 (IMT-2020) standard to support an all Internet Protocol (IP) network. Supports

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3G

Third-generation wireless mobile telecommunications technology, required by International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000 (IMT-2000) standard from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to support at least

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4G

Fourth-generation mobile telecommunications technology,  designed to succeed 3G. A mobile broadband standard  designed to support an all Internet Protocol (IP) network for  calls, video, data,

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AM/PM distortion

Undesirable distortion that causes signal degradation in  a communications system, typically as the result of the interaction between an amplifier’s phase response and the  power

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Antenna reciprocity

A theory that states that the transmit properties of an antenna  will be identical to the receive properties of that antenna in a  given medium.

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Beam acquisition

The process of discovering and connecting with UEs. This  process is substantially changing in 5G with the deployment of  highly directional antenna arrays and beamforming

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Beamforming

The method of applying relative phase and amplitude shifts to  each antenna element to shape and provide discrete control  of the direction of a transmitted

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Beam steering

A set of techniques used to focus the direction and shape of a  radiation pattern. In wireless communications, beam steering  changes the direction of the

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CE – Channel emulator

Electronic equipment that enables real-time performance  testing of wireless devices and base stations. Channel emulators simulate the impairments of real-world radio channel  conditions to validate

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Cell tower

Physical location of electronic communications equipment,  including antennas to support cellular communication in a network.

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Control plane

The part of a network that carries information that establishes  and controls the network. It controls the flow of user  information packets between network interfaces.

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Core network

The part of the network that provides services to mobile  subscribers through the radio access network (RAN). It is also  the gateway to other networks,

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C-RAN – Centralized RAN

A radio access network (RAN) architecture that separates  baseband functions from antennas and remote radio heads  (RRH) and pools baseband functions in centralized baseband  units

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Data plane

The part of a network through which user packets are  transmitted. It is often included in diagrams and illustrations to  give a visual representation of

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DL – Downlink

The path of transmission from the base station to the user  equipment (UE). In 5G, the DL waveform is orthogonal frequency  division multiplexing (OFDM).

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eLTE eNB

An evolved 4G eNodeB (or eNB) that can support connectivity  to the 4G evolved packet core (EPC) as well as the 5G next-  generation core

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Fronthaul

Refers to links in the C-RAN that connect radio equipment at  the tower with centralized radio controllers (radio equipment  control). Fronthaul data is generally transported

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Harmonic

A signal at a frequency that is an integer multiple of another  reference signal. The respective harmonic signal can be  termed as 2f, 3f and

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ICI – Intercarrier interference

Channel variations during an orthogonal frequency division  multiplexing (OFDM) sequence caused by carrier frequency  offsets, channel time variation, and sampling frequency offsets.  ICI degrades the

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Layer 1

The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers:  Layer-1 is the Physical Layer and governs the transmission of  data in a point to point

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Layers 2/3

The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers:  Layer-2 is the Data Link layer and Layer-3 is the Network layer. Together they are responsible

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Layers 4-7

The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers:  Layers 4-7 implement data exchange between relatively distant  systems. Layer-4 is the Transport, Layer 5 is

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LoS – Line of sight

Refers to a system where transmitter and receiver are in  view of each other without any obstruction. AM/FM radio, satellite transmission, and police radar are

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Massive MIMO

An extension of MIMO, using more transmit and receive  antennas to increase transmission gain and spectral efficiency.  There is currently no set minimum scale, though

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MC – Multicarrier

Process of splitting data into multiple components and  transmitting via separate carrier signals. This method offers  reduced susceptibility to several effects that can degrade  signal

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NR – New Radio

Shorthand for “5G NR.” 5G NR is the standard for a new  OFDM-based air interface designed to support 5G devices,  services, deployments, and spectrum. NR

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Numerology

Refers to how cellular communications waveforms are created  based on underlying structures. The 5G NR specification  permits flexible numerology, meaning the OFDM frame can  have

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OTA – Over-the-air

Testing the RF performance, demodulation, or RRM (radio  resource management) through the air interface, versus a  cabled connection; often performed in an anechoic chamber.

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Phased array antenna

Phased array antennas are a means of creating narrow beams  and dynamically pointing them in the desired direction without  mmWave antennas used for 5G base

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Picocell

A small cellular base station that is an alternative to a repeater  or distributed antenna system to improve mobile phone  reception indoors.

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RRM – Radio resource management

The management of radio resources and transmission  characteristics such as modulation scheme, transmit power,  beamforming, user allocation, data rates, handover criteria,  and error coding scheme.

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Standalone NR

A 5G network deployment configuration where the gNB  does not need any 4G assistance for connectivity to the core  network; the 5G UE connects to

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Tx – Transmit

In wireless communications, the act of sending data through  the air from one device to another device or group of devices.

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UPCL – Uplink classifier

Network functionality supported by the user plane function  (UPF) that diverts traffic to local data networks based on filters  applied to the user equipment traffic.

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Xn Interface

A logical interface that interconnects RAN nodes. That is, it  interconnects gNB to gNB and eLTE eNB to gNB and vice versa.

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Edge Cloud

A trending IT and network architecture in which  the cloud (virtual compute and storage resources) is scattered  across multiple sites closer to the edge of

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FlexE (Flexible Ethernet)

A standard defined by the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) for extending Ethernet PHYs to support bonding, sub-rating, and channelization while also enabling channel management and

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en-gNB

A node providing 5G NR user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, acting as secondary node in Evolved-Universal Terrestrial Radio Access-New Radio

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Fronthaul

Defines the network segment connecting RUs to physical or virtual DUs in a C-RAN architecture. Fronthaul is further sub-categorized as fronthaul Higher Layer Split (HLS)

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gNB (gNodeB)

A node providing New Radio (NR) user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, connected via the Next Generation (NG) interface to the

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IoT (Internet of Things)

System of connected devices, machines, objects, or any living or non-living thing equipped with unique identifiers and the ability to transmit data over a network

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Low Band

The lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum used by cellular communications, generally comprising frequencies below 1GHz. These lower-frequency bands have been the most used to

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Mid-Band

The intermediate part of the electromagnetic  spectrum used by cellular communications, generally  comprising frequencies between 1GHz and 6GHz. Sitting in  between the low band and

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Midhaul

Defines the network segment that, in a C-RAN architecture, connects the physical or virtual DU to the physical or virtual CU.

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MNO (Mobile Network Operator)

Provides wireless service(s)  to wireless users by owning or leasing all components to sell  and deliver wireless services over licensed wireless spectrum.  MNOs include wireless

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ng-eNB

A node providing E-UTRA (LTE) user plane and control plane protocol terminations toward the UE, connected via the NG interface to the 5GC.

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Open RAN

A movement in the wireless industry that advocates  for hardware and software disaggregation, openness, and  interoperability in RAN architectures, and acts towards the  standardization of

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Private 5G

A wireless enterprise-dedicated network built using  5G cellular technology (such as 3GPP standards) rather than  traditional wireless LAN technology (Wi-Fi).

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RAN (Radio Access Network)

A combination of wireless network elements and wireline network elements connecting end-users—man and machine—to the network core, delivering specific services. The network elements present in

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RU (Radio Unit)

Converts radio signals from the antennas,  where they are usually located, to digital signals that can be  transmitted over the fronthaul to a DU.

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Soft Slicing

A network prioritization scheme that dynamically  allocates resources to distinct services (slices). The network  slices are programmed to meet individual guaranteed service  levels. Network resources

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SR (Segment Routing)

An IP routing scheme that forwards  packets on the network based on a path dynamically  defined at the source node. Packet headers contain a list

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S-GW (Serving Gateway)

The gateway that terminates the  interface toward Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network  (E-UTRAN). S-GW is responsible for handovers with neighboring  eNodeBs, as well as

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