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4G and 5G V2X architecture

Below is a summary of C-V2X 3GPP releases :

  • C-V2X has been standardized since release 14 that included numerous LTE-V2X functions including the required architecture, support, procedures and security.
  • Then we have Release 15, released in 2018, saw more enhancements to LTE-V2X. This included introduction of 64QAM (64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) compatibility as well as vehicle to vehicle Sidelink improvements.
  • Release 16 in 2019 saw the introduction of NR-V2X, (New Radio V2X) allowing V2X services access to the 5GS (5G System). This included not only key support for autonomous vehicles, but also the delivery of media services to vehicles.
  • After that, Release 17 added additional NR-V2X features enhancing the V2X application layer support and Sidelink operation, as well as support for additional use-cases.
  • Finally 3GPP Release 18 includes various study items that are designed to further enhance and evolve NR-V2X, including V2X application layer services

Considering the LTE/5G V2X architecture, six new reference points are defined in addition to PC5:

  • V1: The reference point between the V2X applications in the UE and in the V2X Application Server.
  • V2: The reference point between the V2X Application Server and the V2X Control Function in the operator’s network. The V2X Application Server may connect to V2X Control Functions belonging to multiple PLMNs.
  • V3: The reference point between the UE and the V2X Control Function in UE’s home PLMN.
  • V4: The reference point between the HSS and the V2X Control Function in the operator’s network.
  • V5: The reference point between the V2X applications in the UEs.
  • V6: The reference point between the V2X Control Function in the HPLMN and the V2X Control Function in the VPLMN.

Below the global architecture for both 4G and 5G V2X :

4G V2X Architecture

In Release 14 in 5G, three new V2X functional entities are introduced in the global V2X architecture:
• V2X Application Server, owned by the operator or a third party, is used to communicate and deliver configuration parameters for PC5 communications to the V2X UEs through UE V2X application.
• V2X Control Function is a new EPC function described below.
• UE V2X application is embedded in the UEs.

5G V2X Architecture

The NR-V2X introduces new system architecture aiming at the use of Network Function Virtualization, where the control plane is constituted with specific network functions (NF). With the focus on V2X the following modifications are introduced:

• There is no V2X Control Function. In Release 16, V2X Control Function is no longer used within the 5GS, as PCF embeds the function. The UE may receive the parameters for V2X communications from: the Policy Control Function (PCF), the V2X Application Server or these can be pre-configured. These V2X parameters provided by PCF also to Access and Mobility Management Function (AMF) are used in configuration and management of V2X communications.

• V2X parameters are stored in Unified Data Repository (UDR)
• Network Repository Function (NRF) helps other NF to discover and select apropriate PCF accounting for V2X capability.
Network Exposure Function (NEF) services facilitate communication between NFs and the V2X Application Server.
• The V2X Application Server and V2X Application include Application Function.

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